The bracero program (named for the Spanish term bracero, meaning “manual laborer” one who works using his arms” was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico, for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States. At the start of the program, train loads of Mexican immigrants ready to work were sent over during the heart of WWII for the “emergency wartime agricultural and railroad importations”. Shortages of food and other goods throughout the U.S caused chaos throughout the nation, leading to the bracero program as a solution.
American president Franklin D. Roosevelt met with Mexican president Manuel Ávila Camacho in Monterrey, Mexico, to discuss Mexico as part of the Allies in World War II and the bracero program. After the expiration of the initial agreement in 1947, the program was continued in agriculture under a variety of laws and administrative agreements until its formal end in 1964.
War and immigration
The cataclysm of World War II (1937–45) had a profound effect on immigration to North America. With restrictive immigration policies in place by the 1920s, interwar immigration to the United States and Canada had been dramatically curtailed from the peak years just before World War I (1914–18; see World War I and immigration). The exigencies of war dropped the numbers further still. The United States admitted almost 1.3 million immigrants in 1907, 50,000 in 1937 when war broke out in China, and less than 24,000 in 1943. Canada’s peak year had been 1913, when almost 400,000 immigrants landed; immigration in 1937 dropped to about 12,000 and further down to 7,445 in the trough year of 1943. But war also changed people’s attitudes toward immigrants and those who might become immigrants and presented enormous challenges to current policies. First raised were security questions regarding potential enemies: What should be done with the millions of Japanese, Germans, and Italians living in North America? Also, with millions of men and women serving abroad, labor needs had to be met at home, and provision had to be made for foreign families acquired while overseas. Finally, there were humanitarian questions regarding the protection of children threatened by war and the eventual resettlement of refugees and other persons displaced by the war. As a result of these challenges, a number of important exceptions were made to the various immigration restrictions in the United States and Canada. Anti-Catholicism and anti-Semitism declined in the United States, and there was a generally less hostile attitude toward nonfounding ethnic groups throughout North America. Though major new immigration legislation was not passed, changing attitudes as a result of the war did pave the way for more far-reaching legislative changes in the future.
The Bracero Program (from the Spanish term bracero, meaning “manual laborer” or “one who works using his arms”) was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942,
August 4 216 day of the year 2/16
The first iteration of Soviet military intelligence was founded in November 1918, but it was not until April 1921 that the body which would become the GRU was formed. Known as the Razvedupr, short for intelligence directorate, or the Fourth Directorate, it was not officially called the GRU until February 16, 1942, a name it carries till this day. Tasked with primarily gathering military-related intelligence, the GRU has often defined this in the broadest sense, gathering political, strategic, economic, and technological information. In addition to running networks of agents, GRU also controls military and naval attaches at Russian embassies, and has extensive paramilitary capabilities.
Psychological operations (PSYOP) are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions, motives, and objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.